What Is A 529 Plan ? A Complete Guide

The education cost of colleges has been rising precipitously for years. The 529 plan college saving plans were created to combat the dramatic rise in the cost of college. The idea was launched in 1986 to create a state-sponsored solution for the families to save and meet college expenses. Since then, the 529 plan has been cherished and favored to set aside money for children's higher education and avail tax break in the process.

529 plans are an excellent choice for saving for college, but they are confusing. This guide simplifies it and provides details on the best 529s by state.

529 Plan Definition


A 529 plan is a tax-advantaged savings plan, governed by the federal tax code's section 529. It is a critical way designed by experts to help families save for higher education—restricted initially to post-secondary education expenses. Late it was expanded to cover K-12 education costs in 2017 and apprenticeship programs in 2019. This tax-advantage saving plan assists people in securing their children's future. 

Most 529 plans are governed by individual states, though independent organizations control some. Altogether you have more than 100 different plans to choose from. Enroll with the one that suits best to your needs. The most appealing feature of a 529 plan is it has something for everyone. And you can tailor your model of investment.  

The bottom line is that 529 is the most convenient way for parents to save for their children's higher education. But before you run out and open one, make sure you understand how a 529 plan works and which one meets your needs. 

How Much And How To Contribute

Contributing to a 529 savings plan is as easy as writing a cheque or making an online payment. Some plans also offer the benefit of automatic monthly transfer from your account to the 529 plan. 

Unlike retirement savings plans, the contributions to a 529 plan are tax-free. The other benefits differ from state to state. Most states provide income tax benefits only if you contribute to your state's account. On the contrary, some offer the same advantages if you contribute to an out-of-state plan.

529 plan calculator is the most effective tool to determine the expected college expenses. The attendance costs and scholarship availability varies considerably from college to college. 

529 Plan Figures And Statistics

With a sharp increase in student loan debt and more students from diverse financial backgrounds pursuing higher education, the need to save for higher studies has become more critical.


Fig1: shows how savings and student loans are increasing at the same rate, according to data from Federal Reserve.

The Federal Reverse reveals that only 2.5% of the American households had a 529 plan. By the year 2017, the graph rose to 3.1%. 

Tax Credits: 5 states provide the benefit of tax credits for their residents to make their contributions to a 529 plan. These states include Minnesota, Indiana, Utah, Vermont, and Oregon.

Tax Deductions: 29 states proffer tax deductions to their residents.

Tax Parity: Few states offer a tax deduction for contributions to ANY 529 plan nationwide. These states include Kansas, Missouri, Arizona, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, and Montanna.

Conforming With Federal Tax Law For Student Loan Debt: Only 23 states have revised their plans to allow up to $10,000 for student loan debt.

Conforming With Federal Tax Law For K-12 Education: Most states allow K-12 education, with 37 states following Federal Law.

529 Plan Rules

529 plan comes up with countless benefits and a set of rules. Here is what you need to know about these plans:

529 plans are state-sponsored.

The account holder has the ownership of the funds.

There aren't any contribution limits.

Only qualified expenses are permitted.

Types Of 529 Plans

A 529 saving plan is designed by financial experts to promote early and consistent savings. It is gaining popularity among US locals by offering an affordable, easy, and convenient process for families to save college funds. While the tax benefits are one of the primary advantages, states also provide various features to help families achieve their college saving goals. 529 plans have the following types:

1. Traditional 529 Plan

It is most widely used by families to save for higher education in the traditional 529 plan. The contributions you make are then invested in mutual funds or other investments. The amount in the account keeps fluctuating depending upon how the stock market is performing.

2. State- Sponsored Prepaid 529 Plans

Present by about 12 states, universities, and private colleges within the country, with a prepaid 529 plan, the families lock in the investment today even though their child will not be attending school in the coming years. 

3. Prepaid Tuition Plans

With this plan, you prepay the overall cost of an in-state public college education. It can also be converted for out-of-state and private colleges. The Private college 529 plan is run and managed by a group of 280 private colleges and universities. The child can attend any of the 280 colleges that qualify for the plan, or if he or she chooses in-state college, then the money is rolled over into a traditional 529 plan. 

4. Actively Directed 529 Plans

With an actively managed 529 plan, the motive is to beat a specific basket of stock or specified index. It means there is an investment professional or money manager assigned to choose the investments based on the market conditions. It is for those who are ready to take some risks during occasional stock market downturns.

529 Plan Qualified Expenses

Money invested in a 529 plan grows tax-deferred and qualified expenses are tax-free. It permits families for an income tax deduction or credit for 529 plan investment, based on where they live. 

A 529 plan is the perfect solution to meet huge expenses like costs required for attendance and enrollment at most accredited colleges and graduate schools, including professional and trade schools. Foreign schools that receive federal financial aid also qualify. Here is a complete list of the typical educational expenses that are eligible for a 529 plan:

Tuition fees up to the full amount of the required fee.

Books and supplies for college use only. 

Computer and internet access for college expenses only.

If the student is paid for half-time, his room and board expense are also eligible for 529 plans.

Special need equipment for college use only. 

Student loans. 

Within each state, there are multiple saving plans. Each comes with a host of corresponding fees, including investment and maintenance fees. Consider the fee structure and compare them against the benefits every plan offers when deciding which one to choose.

 Advantages Of 529 Plan


Saving for your child's higher education can be a daunting task, given how quickly the education costs are rising. The average tuition fee for in-state students has multiplied several times for the past two decades. 

Fortunately, a flexible, tax-advantaged scheme to accumulate the funds you need for higher education, a 529 plan. It can be a lifeline for grandparents and parents. Many people are unaware of the flexibility 529 plan offers and or the benefits beyond the tax-deferred growth of investments. 

What makes these plans so popular? Let's count the ways: 

1. 529 Plan Tax Benefits

529 plans offer federal tax-free growth as well as free tax withdrawals for qualified expenses. 

These funds can be used on spending K-12 (from kindergarten to 12th grade) tuition expenses and for all the other qualified education expenses. 

It is a considerable incentive for US residents to save for college. The tax treatment was made permanent under the Pension Protection Act of 2006.

Additionally, over 30 states provide fully or partially tax redemption or credit for 529 plan contributions. 

2. Age-Based Investment Approaches

529 plans are convenient and straightforward to set in. choosing a suitable plan for yourself depends upon the saver's aim, ambitions, and saving strategy. The age-based approach is highly appropriate for the people who don't want to think about a 529 plan. In this plan, the investments are aggressive when the child is young, whereas the assets are conservative when they are near higher education. 

3. The More, The Merrier

There is no limit on the number 529 plans you can get into at once. That means if you have already registered with one plan, you can still look for another plan that suits you better. You can have multiple accounts with benefits in different states without ever having to consolidate them. 

4. You Can Choose Any Plan That Works For You

Their plans offer various contributions, including exchange-traded funds, mutual funds, and fund of fund portfolios. Most plans provide risk-based and similar to target-date funds in a 401(k).

5. Yes, Aunt Jane Can Contribute

529 plans are designed to be flexible. All 529 plans accept third-party contributions, no matter who owns the account. That means anyone, including grandparents, uncles, aunts, or even friends, can help you save for your higher education. One doesn't need to be a family member of the beneficiary to contribute to the 529 plan savings plan.

6. Offer Generous Limit

There are state-set contribution limits for a 529 plan, though the threshold is high. In most cases, you can make generous contributions until your balance reaches the limit of $400,000. These contributions also certify for a gift-tax exclusion. What makes it more favorable is there are no income restrictions, as there are all the other types of saving plans. 

7. No Age-Restrictions

As a general rule, a 529 plan has no restrictions. An adult of any age group can start his own 529 plan, saving as both beneficiary and account holder. As long as the expenses are consumed for post-secondary education, the plan beneficiaries can be of any age. 

8. Your Saving Accounts Don't Expire

If your child is not willing to join college, don't rush or panic in your decision about what to do with your 529 plan sayings. 529 college savings plan does not have a time limit to expire. These account assets never expire so that these funds can pass down to the next generation. You can even save the funds for your grandchildren.

9. No Genius Penalty

In the most fortunate cases, like when your child gets a full-ride or partial scholarship, you can withdraw the amount equal to the scholarship without having to pay the 10% penalty. However, you may have taxes on the earnings. 

10. Low Maintenance

A 529 plan is an effortless and convenient way to save for education. To enroll, choose the plan that suits you best and contact your financial advisor. Most of the plans are featured with an automatic deduction policy once you link it to your account. This investment policy is managed by an outside investment company or by the state's treasurer office. 

Maximizing Your 529 Plan

At the end of the day, the 529 turns out to be as good as the savers behind it. After all, the money will not grow until there isn't anything going into it. For this reason, one should start saving as early as often as possible, making recurring and, if possible lump-sum contributions.

Some employers are working efficiently by offering programs where a specified percentage of the pay is directly transferred to a 529 plan. If it's automatic, the people are apt to save more. 

Maximizing a 529 does not cease with the people or the person who opened it up. It also becomes a family affair by enlisting grandparents, aunts, uncles, and other relatives or friends to invest in the plan in place of gifts for birthdays and holidays. Instead of giving a toy as a present that may break or be lost anytime, it makes sense to inform others about the account.

Whether you choose a private period 529, private prepaid 529, or a traditional 529 plan, the objective is to save. In fact, according to experts, many families enroll in more than one plan at once to cover beyond tuition expenses. There are college saving 529 plans for every kind of saver.                       

Pay head to this comprehensive guide to 529 plan. It is sufficient and very easy to understand its significance.